Protein detected in human plasma by immunoassays

Here, we present the estimated protein concentrations of proteins detected in human plasma using immunoasays. Reference plasma concentrations for 365 proteins actively secreted to blood were collected based on published research articles where immunoassays had been used to measure the target proteins. The concentrations of the proteins for which reference values could be obtained ranged over 10 orders of magnitude from 40 mg/ml for human serum albumin down to 4 pg/ml for interleukin 5.

Figure 1. Example plot from a gene-specific page of the Blood Atlas showing a protein’s concentration rank in relation to 364 other proteins secreted to blood (x-axis) as well as concentration on an absolute scale (left y-axis) and in relation to a handful selected plasma proteins (right y-axis).

Figure 2. Violin plots showing the distribution of plasma concentrations for 22 different groups based on their main protein function.

Apolipoprotein, enzyme inhibitors and proteins involved in transport generally show high plasma concentrations above 1 ug/ml. In contrast, chemokines and cytokines, especially interleukins and interferons, are found in the lower end of the concentration range below 1 ng/ml together with hormones, neuropeptides and growth factors.

Table 1. Concentrations for proteins secreted to blood. Measured by immunoassays.

Gene Gene description Mean concentration Reference
ALB Albumin 40 g/L 40 g/L
A2M Alpha-2-macroglobulin 2.9 g/L 2.9 g/L
TF Transferrin 2.5 g/L 2.5 g/L
SERPINA1 Serpin family A member 1 1.7 g/L 1.9 g/L
1.6 g/L
1.5 g/L
APOA1 Apolipoprotein A1 2.2 g/L 3.0 g/L
1.4 g/L
C3 Complement C3 1.0 g/L 1.2 g/L
920 mg/L
900 mg/L
HPX Hemopexin 430 mg/L 750 mg/L
100 mg/L
APOB Apolipoprotein B 1.3 g/L 1.9 g/L
720 mg/L
CFH Complement factor H 400 mg/L 640 mg/L
290 mg/L
260 mg/L
ORM1 Orosomucoid 1 950 mg/L 1.5 g/L
730 mg/L
610 mg/L
VTN Vitronectin 220 mg/L 340 mg/L
320 mg/L
9.7 mg/L
APOA2 Apolipoprotein A2 230 mg/L 300 mg/L
160 mg/L
TTR Transthyretin 350 mg/L 400 mg/L
290 mg/L
C4BPB Complement component 4 binding protein beta 270 mg/L 270 mg/L
FGG Fibrinogen gamma chain 270 mg/L 300 mg/L
290 mg/L
250 mg/L
230 mg/L
AHSG Alpha 2-HS glycoprotein 230 mg/L 230 mg/L
CRISPLD2 Cysteine rich secretory protein LCCL domain containing 2 220 mg/L 220 mg/L
C5 Complement C5 110 mg/L 200 mg/L
26 mg/L
A1BG Alpha-1-B glycoprotein 200 mg/L 200 mg/L
APOH Apolipoprotein H 170 mg/L 170 mg/L
CP Ceruloplasmin 160 mg/L 160 mg/L
APOA4 Apolipoprotein A4 150 mg/L 150 mg/L
PLG Plasminogen 140 mg/L 140 mg/L
GC GC, vitamin D binding protein 140 mg/L 240 mg/L
120 mg/L
70 mg/L
HRG Histidine rich glycoprotein 120 mg/L 130 mg/L
110 mg/L
F2 Coagulation factor II, thrombin 110 mg/L 110 mg/L
110 mg/L
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